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Frederik pl. Benković (Federico Benkovich)

(Almissa, Republic of Venice1; 1677 - Gorizia, Republic of Venice2; 8th of July, 1753)

 Povijesna Osoba (Historical Figure)

 

 

"Abraham žrtvuje Izaka"/"Abraham Sacrificing Isaac"

- Ulje na platnu/Oil on canvas; - 2.207 x 1.653 m; - inv. br. SG-3/inv. nr. SG-3

Frederik pl. Benković (Federico Benkovich)

(In history papers/books also known as:

Federico Bencovich, Federigo Bencovich, Fédéric Bencovich, Federico Boncorich)

 

Dar Društva prijatelja Strossmayerove galerije.

Ovu je sliku Benković radio za dvorac Pommersfelden u Njemačkoj, a u Galeriju je došla preko Francuske (iz dvorca je odnesena kao dio ratnoga plijena Napoleonovih vojnika) i Engleske (kupljena je u aukcijskoj kući Sotheby), zahvaljujući Društvu prijatelja Strossmayerove galerije, koje ju je godine 1936. napokon smjestilo u Zagreb.

IKONOGRAFSKA ANALIZA SLIKE

Ocu izbranoga naroda, Abrahamu, s kojim je sklopio Savez, Jahve je obećao potomstvo brojno poput zvijezda na nebu i pijeska na morskoj obali, pa ipak mu je žena Sara rodila prvorođenca Izaka tek u kasnijim godinama. Kada je dječak stasao, Jahve je od Abrahama zatražio najteži dokaz vjernosti - da pođe na označeno brdo i prinese sina kao žrtvu paljenicu! Federico Benković, posljednji veliki Schiavone u povijesti umjetnosti, odabrao je za predložak slike završni čin te starozavjetne drame, trenutak koji je u Knjizi Postanka ovako opisan "Uto ga zovne s neba anđeo Jahvin i poviče: "Abrahame! Abrahame!" "Evo me!" odgovori on. "Ne spuštaj ruku na dječaka", reče "niti mu što čini! Sad, evo, znam da se Boga bojiš, jer nisi uskratio ni svog sina, jedinca svoga." (Post. 22, 11-12).

KOMPOZICIJSKA ANALIZA SLIKE

Tipično barokna kompozicijska linija.
Kompoziciju čine tri figure - anđeo, Abraham i Izak. Sve tri su povezane dominantnim spiralnim kompozicijskim tijekom masa. Koncentracija pozornosti na Izakovu nagom tijelu, njegova izloženost i svjetlosna naglašenost upućuje na dječaka kao žrtvu. Sljedeći svjetlosni naglasak vodi nas do Abrahamove glave. Na njoj je maestralno, pastoznim potezima kista portretirana staračka glava, iznurena teškom odlukom o žrtvi vlastita prvorođenca, a do nje zlosutno je obasjan vršak noža. Ta tri svjetlosno naglašena dijela - Izakovo tijelo, Abrahamova glava i vrh noža - tri su glavna motiva starozavjetne drame. Tek kada je putem svjetlosnih istaka Benković stvorio napetost teme i kad smo već u nju uvedeni, vidimo u polusjeni spasonosnu ruku anđela koja zaustavlja Abrahamovu desnicu, a lijevom pokazuje uvis, prema Bogu, objašnjavajući tom gestom odakle dolazi i tko ga šalje.

Donated by the Strossmayer Gallery's Friends Society.

Benkovich did this painting for the Pommersfelden manor in Germany, while it came to the Gallery via France (it was taken from the manor as a part of the Napoleon's soldiers loot) and England (it was purchased at Sotheby's) owing to the efforts of the Strossmayer Gallery's Friends Society, who finally managed to bring it to Zagreb in 1936.

ICONOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF THE PAINTING

To the father of the chosen people, Abraham, with whom He made the Convenant, Jahweh promised descendants as numerous as stars in the sky and sands on the sea shore, and yet his wife Sarah did not give him a son until he was already rather advanced in age. When the boy grew up, Jahweh asked Abraham to give him the hardest proof of fidelity possible - to go to the hill that He pointed to him and sacrifice his own son! Federico Benkovich, the last great Schiavone in art history, chose as motif the final act of this Old Testament drama, described in Genesis as follows: "But the LORD's messenger called him from heaven, 'Abraham, Abraham!' 'Yes, Lord,' he answered. 'Do not lay your hand on the boy.' said the messenger. 'Do not do the least thing to him. I know now how devoted you are to God, since you did not withold from me your own beloved son'" (Gen 22: 11-12).

COMPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE PAINTING

A typically Baroque composition line
The composition consists of three figures: Abraham, Isaac and the messenger. They are all connected with a dominating spiral compositional mass flow. Concentration of attention upon Isaac's naked body, his exposure, and the light centered around him point to the boy as a sacrifice. Another light stress is on Abraham's head. The old man's face is tortured with the decision to sacrifice his own firstborn, while yet another source of light takes us to the sinister knife blade. These three parts accentuated with light - Isaac's body, Abraham's head, and the tip of the knife - are the three principal motifs of the Old Testament drama. It is only after Benkovich has introduced us into the plot culmination using concentrations of light that we discover, in semi-shade, the salutary arm of the messenger stopping Abraham's right hand, while pointing with his left one towards God, thus explaining where he comes from and who sent him.

Source: "Strossmayerova Galerija" - Zagreb, Croatia

Reference material: "Federico Benković u tri biografske bilješke iz 18. stoljeća" - Sanja Cvetnić /Filozofski fakultet, Zagreb/

 

1 - Omiš, Croatia; 2 - Gorizia, Italy

 

 

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