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General Information about Croatia
The national anthem:
The national anthem of the Republic of Croatia is "Lijepa Naša Domovina" ("Our Beautiful Homeland"). The author of the lyrics is Antun Mihanović. The lyrics were first printed in Danica ("The Morning Star") magazine in 1835 under the title "Hrvatska Domovina" ("Croatian Homeland"). It became the Croatian anthem under the name "Lijepa Naša" ("Our Beautiful").
Josip Runjanin wrote the score to Mihanović's lyrics during his service in Glina in 1846. V. Lichtenegger harmonized and wrote down Runjanin's score in 1861. The song was first sung as the national anthem in 1891, at an exhibition held by the Croatian-Slavonian Economic Society in Zagreb.
Lijepa naša domovina
Lijepa Naša Domovino,
Oj junačka zemljo mila,
Stare slave djedovino,
Da bi vazda sretna bila!
Mila, kano si nam slavna,
Mila si nam ti jedina,
Mila kuda si nam ravna,
Mila kuda si planina!
Teci Savo, Dravo teci,
Nit ti, Dunav, silu gubi!
Sinje more, svijetu reci,
Da svoj narod Hrvat ljubi!
Dok mu njive sunce grije,
Dok mu hrastje bura vije,
Dok mu mrtve grobak krije,
Dok mu živo srce bije.
Our Beautiful Homeland
Beautiful is our homeland,
Oh so fearless, oh so gracious,
Our fathers' ancient glory,
May God bless you, live forever!
Yes, you are our only glory,
Yes, you are our only treasure,
We love your plains and valleys,
We love your hills and mountains.
Sava, Drava, keep on flowing,
Danube, do not lose your vigour,
Deep blue sea go tell the whole world,
That a Croat loves his homeland.
When his fields are kissed by sunshine,
When his oaks are whipped by wild winds,
When his dear ones go to heaven,
Still his heart beats for Croatia!
The flag of the Republic of Croatia consists of three colors: red, white and blue, with the historical Croatian coat of arms in the center. The length is twice the width. Its colors, in the order red, white and blue are laid horizontally, each one third the width of the flag. The coat of arms is placed in the center of the flag so that the upper part of the coat of arms (the crown) overlaps the red field of the flag, and the bottom part overlaps the flag's blue field. The center of the coat of arms is placed at the point where the diagonals of the flag meet.
At the time of the Croatian national renaissance the Illyrian traditional jackets also were most often red, white or blue. All three colors were also part of the ceremonial inaugural uniform of Viceroy Josip Jelačić in 1848. The tricolor flag (red-white-blue) from the same year was also preserved. The flag is a symbol of the Croatian national reformers' striving for the unification of the Croatian lands.
The coat-of-arms of the Republic of Croatia is a historical Croatian coat-of-arms in the shape of a shield. The checkered pattern has twenty five alternating red and white (argent) fields, so that the left upper corner of the shield is red. Above the shield is a crown with five peaks, which touches the sinister and the dexter chief (left and right upper ends) of the shield, bending in a slight arch. The crown is divided into five small shields with historical Croatian coat-of-arms, in the following order, from left to right: the oldest known Croatian coat-of-arms, then the coat-of-arms of the Dubrovnik Republic, Dalmatia, Istria and Slavonia.
The height of the smaller fields in the crown is 2.5 times the size of the fields in the main shield, while the width of both sets of fields are the same.
The oldest known Croatian coat-of-arms
has a yellow (golden) six-pointed star and a white (argent) new moon on a blue
shield. The coat-of-arms of the Dubrovnik Republic has two red beams on a navy
blue shield. The Dalmatian coat-of-arms has three yellow (golden) crowned
leopard's heads on a navy blue shield. The Istrian coat-of-arms has a yellow
(golden) goat with red hoofs and horns facing left, on a navy blue shield. The
Slavonian coat-of-arms has two horizontal white (argent) beams on a blue sheild.
Between the beams there is a red field with a marten in motion facing left.
There is a yellow (golden) six-pointed star in the chief blue field. The entire
coat-of-arms is trimmed by a red line.
Zagreb (1991 census pop. 960,000)
Other major cities are Split (pop. 206, 612) the main city in Dalmatia, Rijeka (pop. 205,836) the most important port in the country, Osijek (164,577)the largest city in Slavonia, Pula (84,606) a major port and prime city in Istria, Zadar (134,881), Šibenik (84,435), and Dubrovnik (70,672) are all large medieval cities and cultural centers in southern Croatia.
Area & population:
Northern Croatia has a continental climate. Central, semimountainous and mountainous regions, as well as the entire Adriatic coast, have a Mediterranean climate. Spring and autumn are mild along the coast, while winter can be cold and snowy in central and northern regions.
The legal currency in Croatia is kuna (Local abbreviation kn, international abbreviation HRK), consisting of 100 smaller units, called lipa (lp).
(The name kuna, meaning "marten", has its origin in ancient times, when the marten's fur was used as a trade unit. The word lipa means "linden tree".)
Paper money comes in the following denominations: HRK 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000, and 50 Lipa. Exchange rates offered in the exchange offices are adjusted to the world exchange rates and domestic offer. Exchange rates are also published in the daily press and by financial institutions that display them in visible places. Foreign and local currencies can be exchanged in banks and exchange offices. Travel agencies and banks have their branch offices at border-crossings. The exchange rate fluctuation is around 1 %.
Who is Who on the Kuna bill:
Credit cards are normally used in Croatia. Accepted are the following cards: EUROCARD/MASTERCARD, VISA, DINERS and AMERICAN EXPRESS, as well as other credit cards issued by domestic credit institutions (Zagrebačka banka, Splitska banka and several other banks). Tourist companies accept them as payment instrument.
International telephone access code for Croatia is +385. The area codes for the largest cities and their surroundings areas are as follows: Zagreb 01, Split 021, Rijeka 051, Osijek 034. Omit the 0 when dialing from abroad. To place an outgoing international call from Croatia, dial 00 plus the relevant country code and number.
099 - MOBITEL cellular phone network covers 91 % of the territory of the Republic of Croatia, and almost 99 % of inhabited areas.
098 - GSM - CRONET cellular phone network covers over 40 % of the total territory and about 75 % of inhabited areas in Croatia, whereby the coverage of tourist resorts, major roads, towns and cities is provided. HT (Croatian Telecommunications) have concluded roaming agreements with 64 GSM operators from 36 countries in the world, having provided the GSM users with today most modern way of communications.
Also, VIPNET (091 -GSM) has concluded roaming agreements with 46 GSM operators from 30 countries in the world, having provided the GSM users with today most modern way of communications.
Electrical current is 220 volts AC, 50 Hz. Most plugs have two round pins. Visitors from abroad who wish to operate personal small electronic items, should bring a plug adapter and a transformer.
TV and Radio:
In Croatia there are 3 national TV networks, and lots of local networks. The broadcast is in Croatian language. Every morning on HTV 3 there is a live picture from panoramic cameras located in almost all tourist centers (Opatija, Sukošan, Šibenik, Split, Hvar, Dubrovnik, Bjelolasica). In almost all hotels and lots of private pensions there is Satellite TV. TV broadcast standard is in European PAL system.
During the tourist season national and local radio stations have news on foreign languages almost every hour.